last refuge of the scoundrel Archive

A socialist wrote the Pledge of Allegiance, which used to be accompanied by Nazi salutes

Socialist minister Francis J. Bellamy wrote the Pledge of Allegiance in the 1890s in an effort to paper over the post-Civil War divisions; to accompany it, he devised the “Bellamy Salute”: “raise your right hand, flip your palm down, point it toward the flag in a salute and recite the words.” Fifty years later, Americans switched to holding their hands over their hearts, …